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Dagstuhl Seminar 21232

Human-Computer Interaction to Support Work and Wellbeing in Mobile Environments

( Jun 06 – Jun 11, 2021 )

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We live in a world where ubiquitous computing devices are becoming parts of the fabric of our lives. Yet, for all the improvements in mobile computing devices, we are still at the beginning of what will be a revolutionary change in our ability to use technology everywhere and at all times. One reason for the upcoming change is the fact that artificial intelligence coupled with improved computational power will allow mobile devices to provide services that were not possible before. Furthermore, high-speed wireless connectivity is becoming available in ever more places, and devices are increasing energy-efficiency so that they can be used for extended periods of time while on the go. Building on these advancements novel human-computer interaction techniques will be developed that will support our work and wellbeing in myriad contexts, including (although not limited to) automated vehicles, museums, and sports.

So, how will we interact with the devices in mobile environments of our near (and not-so-near) future? Designing human-computer interaction for work and wellbeing tasks in mobile environments is a multi-dimensional problem. Key dimensions of this field will be the basis for the research questions that we plan to address:

  1. What are the manual, visual, auditory, and cognitive demands of tasks in mobile environments?
  2. What are the aspects of mobile contexts that affect how people work and play in mobile environments?
  3. How do we support (safe) task switching?
  4. How do we leverage advanced HCI technologies to support work and wellbeing activities in mobile environments?

These questions are interrelated and cannot be fruitfully analyzed in isolation. Thus, while we introduce these questions separately, at the Dagstuhl Seminar we will discuss them considering their interconnected nature. To promote this approach, we invite computer scientists/engineers, electrical engineers, interaction designers, UI/UX designers, and psychologists from industry and academia to join this Dagstuhl Seminar.

We expect the following key results from the Dagstuhl Seminar:

  1. 1. List of challenges and hypotheses. The most significant contribution of the seminar will be a list of important challenges, or research problems, and accompanying hypotheses. We expect that in the coming 3 to 10 years these problems and hypotheses will serve as inspiration for the research of the seminar attendees, and more broadly the communities involved in designing user interfaces that support work and play in mobile environments.
  2. Roadmap(s) for research. The workshop report will include a roadmap for addressing the challenges and hypotheses – the roadmap will outline proposed research collaborations, as well as current, and recommended new, funding mechanisms. Furthermore, the roadmap will lay out plans for disseminating results such that members of our community are well-informed, and such that they can effectively interact with researchers and practitioners in related communities, such as human-computer interaction, human-factors, user experience, automotive engineering, psychology, and economics.
Copyright Stephen Brewster, Andrew Kun, Andreas Riener, and Orit Shaer


Agenda in a nutshell

The seminar was conducted online during the week of June 6-10, 2021. A particular difficulty in planning the agenda (see Fig. 1) arose due to the different time zones of the individual participants. It was especially important to us to offer at least some of the program items together to all participants (Opening and Group Work on Day 1, Summit and Closing on the last day). On the other days, we planned different activities in smaller (2-3 people) and larger (up to half of the participants) groups to better accommodate the participants based on their time zones. Figure 1 Compact overview of the agenda for the week including different geographical zones (for better planning with participants from all-over the world).

Figure 1 Compact overview of the agenda for the week including different geographical zones (for better planning with participants from all-over the world)
  • Monday, June 6: The seminar was opened and its main goals introduced by the seminar co-organizers Stephen Brewster, Andrew Kun, Andreas Riener and Orit Shaer. The presented slides can be accessed here: After a social "warm-up" activity, Pecha Kucha presentations of all participants followed. During the presentations, all participants were instructed to collect questions, ideas, thoughts, etc. on a Miro-board; The items were clustered by the organizers (in a short coffee break) and after that, a voting of topics to be picked-up/focusing on in the next days of the seminar (see Fig. 2) followed. This activity ended day 1. Figure 2 Group activities on day 1: Collecting of ideas, thoughts, questions from the individual presentations; Majority voting after clustering of collected items. Figure 2 Group activities on day 1: Collecting of ideas, thoughts, questions from the individual presentations; Majority voting after clustering of collected items.
  • Tuesday, June 7: The second day of the seminar was dedicated to the “Work(shop) for the Future of Work and Mobility in Automated Vehicles”. In this workshop, participants (see Fig. 3) worked together on user needs and how to fulfill them during shared or private automated mobility. The workshop was conducted twice – each with half of the participants and lasted for about two hours including a short coffee break. In order to get all participants in the mood for the workshop and to allow them to reflect on the topic from their personal point of view, we invited everybody to complete a brief ( 10 min.) “pre-questionnaire” before the workshop (Link: For details, see section 3.3. The results from both the questionnaire and the two workshops are currently analyzed and will be later submitted as conference paper or journal article (with recognition of the Dagstuhl seminar). Figure 3 Introduction to the two workshops on day 2 including participants. Figure 3 Introduction to the two workshops on day 2 including participants. Figure 4 Intermediary results of the interactive workshop part on the Miro-board (group 2 workshop)
  • Wednesday, June 8: On this day, in the Dagstuhl tradition to offer a social activity, we watched – again in two groups of each ca. 15 people – the documentary “Coded Bias” ( While watching the video, participants were asked to record their thoughts (issues, concerns, suprises, technical problems/solutions, societal/policy related solutions) in a Miro-board, e.g., for group 1. After watching, we used 10 minutes for clustering the items followed by another 5 minutes for voting. The top voted items where than discussed in the large group and conclusions drawn for our work.
  • Coded Bias - group 1 results:

    Figure 5 Post-its collected by the participants of group 1 and voting results.
    • 5 votes: "ensure the right to be forgotten" (removal/deletion of data)
    • 4 votes: "AI algorithm uses historical information for the prediction -- not everything has been seen before..."
    • 3 votes: "Salery automatically based on office environment" (stationary, in the car, on the go) -> lot of discussion
    • 2 votes: "Transparency"
    • 2 votes: "Use a diverse data set to train the AI"
    • 2 votes: "Ways of opening the black box...?"

    Coded Bias - group 2 results:

    Figure 6 Post-its collected by the participants of group 2 and results of the voting on most relevant elements identified during watching "Coded Bias".
    • 9 votes: "Transparency and explainability of algorithms (related to and used in automated cars)"
    • 6 votes: "Where would bias be exhibited toward passengers or those outside the vehicle?"
    • 6 votes: "Lack of regulation and legal structure for AI implementation"
    • 6 votes: "mass surveillance unlocked by networked AVs"
    • 6 votes: "Ethics education"
  • Thursday, June 9: On the second last day of the seminar, all seminar participants met in small groups (2 to 3 people, see Fig. 7) to discuss one of the topics identified as most important (and to make a video of the discussion) or to jointly create a Youtube playlist of most-impactful videos in a dedicated topical area related to the seminar. The results were collected by the co-organizers of the seminar and distributed among the participants. Examples of bilateral interviews can be found in Sections 4.1 or 4.2, among others, and an example of a playlist is shown in Section 4.3.
  • Figure 7 PCouples who either had a curated conversation or created a Youtube playlist on Thursday bilaterally (≤= 5 minutes each).
  • Friday, June 10: The last day of the seminar has ended with a summit (Fig. 8). The first half of this activity was devoted to two panels with distinguished panelists. Panelists started the conversations with brief statements, which were then followed by moderated discussions with the group. For the second half of this activity all participants were sent into breakout rooms in Zoom and worked in smaller groups on a Miro-board ( on problems discussed during the panels. After the group work, all met again in the main Zoom room and each group presented the results of the group activity (Fig. 9).
Figure 8 The highlight of the seminar: A summit with contributions from seminar participants and keynote speeches from invited experts (including Neha Kumar, ACM SIGCHI President). Figure 9 Overview of the results of the six groups in Miro.
Copyright Stephen Brewster, Andrew Kun, Andreas Riener, and Orit Shaer

  • Sun Joo Ahn (University of Georgia - Athens, US) [dblp]
  • Ignacio J. Alvarez (Intel - Hillsboro, US) [dblp]
  • Laura Boffi (University of Ferrara, IT) [dblp]
  • Susanne Boll (Universität Oldenburg, DE) [dblp]
  • Stephen Brewster (University of Glasgow, GB) [dblp]
  • Duncan Brumby (University College London, GB) [dblp]
  • Gary Burnett (University of Nottingham, GB) [dblp]
  • Yi-Chao Chen (Shanghai Jiao Tong University, CN)
  • Lewis Chuang (IfADo - Dortmund, DE) [dblp]
  • Anna Cox (University College London, GB) [dblp]
  • Birsen Donmez (University of Toronto, CA) [dblp]
  • Geraldine Fitzpatrick (TU Wien, AT) [dblp]
  • Mark D. Gross (University of Colorado - Boulder, US) [dblp]
  • Shamsi Tamara Iqbal (Microsoft Research - Redmond, US) [dblp]
  • Christian P. Janssen (Utrecht University, NL) [dblp]
  • Wendy Ju (Cornell Tech - New York, US) [dblp]
  • Andrew L. Kun (University of New Hampshire - Durham, US) [dblp]
  • John D. Lee (University of Wisconsin - Madison, US)
  • Siân Lindley (Microsoft Research - Cambridge, GB) [dblp]
  • Mark McGill (University of Glasgow, GB)
  • Helena M. Mentis (University of Maryland - Baltimore County, US) [dblp]
  • Alexander Meschtscherjakov (Universität Salzburg, AT) [dblp]
  • Bastian Pfleging (TU Eindhoven, NL) [dblp]
  • Champika Manel Epa Ranasinghe (University of Twente - Enschede, NL)
  • Andreas Riener (TH Ingolstadt, DE) [dblp]
  • Sayan Sarcar (University of Tsukuba - Ibaraki, JP)
  • Clemens Schartmüller (TH Ingolstadt, DE)
  • Martina Schuß (TH Ingolstadt, DE)
  • Orit Shaer (Wellesley College, US) [dblp]
  • Gregory F. Welch (University of Central Florida - Orlando, US) [dblp]

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  • Computers and Society
  • Emerging Technologies
  • Human-Computer Interaction

  • HCI
  • automation
  • work
  • wellbeing