13. – 16. Mai 2018, Dagstuhl-Seminar 18202

Inter-Vehicular Communication Towards Cooperative Driving


Onur Altintas (TOYOTA InfoTechnology Center USA – Mountain V, US)
Suman Banerjee (University of Wisconsin – Madison, US)
Falko Dressler (Universität Paderborn, DE)
Geert Heijenk (University of Twente, NL)
Katrin Sjöberg (Göteborg, SE)

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Looking back at the last decade, one can observe enormous progress in the domain of vehicular networking. In this growing community, many ongoing activities focus on the design of communication protocols to support safety applications, intelligent navigation, multi-player gaming and others. Very large projects have been initiated to validate the theoretic work in field tests and protocols are being standardized. With the increasing interest from industry, security and privacy have also become crucial aspects in the stage of protocol design in order to support a smooth and carefully planned roll-out. We are now entering an era that might change the game in road traffic management. This is supported by the U.S. federal government announcement in December 2016 that National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) plans to make V2V devices in new vehicles mandatory. This coincides with the final standardization of higher layer networking protocols in Europe by the ETSI.

The vehicular networking research also complements the ongoing activities towards automated driving. Very successful activities started with the Google and lead to first projects on the road such as the Singapore driverless taxi service or the platooning experiments in Scandinavia and now Germany.

The management and control of network connections among vehicles and between vehicles and an existing network infrastructure is currently one of the most challenging research fields in the networking domain. Using the terms Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs), Inter-Vehicle Communication (IVC), Car-2-X (C2X), or Vehicle-2-X (V2X), many applications – as interesting as challenging – have been envisioned and (at least) partially realized. In this context, a very active research field has developed. There is a long list of desirable applications that can be grouped into four IVC categories:

  1. eSafety applications that try to make driving safer, e.g. road hazard warning;
  2. traffic efficiency applications aiming at more efficient and thus greener traffic, e.g., detection of traffic jams;
  3. manufacturer oriented applications, e.g., automatic software updates; and
  4. comfort applications, e.g. automatic map updates.

In 2010, a first Dagstuhl Seminar (10402) was organized on the topic of inter-vehicular communication. The motivation was to bring together experts in this field to investigate the state of the art and to highlight where sufficient solutions already existed. The main outcome of this very inspiring seminar was that there are indeed areas within this research where scientific findings are being consolidated and adopted by industry. This was the consensus of quite intriguing discussions among participants from both industry and academia. Yet, even more aspects have been identified where substantial research is still needed. These challenges have been summarized in the following IEEE Communications Magazine article [1].

A follow-up seminar (13392) was organized in 2013. The goal was to again bring together leading researchers both from academia and industry to discuss if and where the previously identified challenges have been adequately addressed, and to highlight where sufficient solutions exist today, where better alternatives need to be found, and also to give directions where to look for such alternatives. Furthermore, it was the goal of this workshop to go one step beyond and identify where IVC can contribute to the basic foundations of computer science or where previously unconsidered foundations can contribute to IVC. It turned out that quite a number of research questions were still open or insufficiently addressed. This particularly included scalability and real-time capabilities. These challenges have been summarized in the following IEEE Communications Magazine article [2].

We now shifted the focus of this seminar from basic networking principles to networked control applications. We were particularly interested in the first two IVC categories that are thought to yield substantial benefits for the emerging "cooperative automated driving" domain. It is of utmost importance to bring together expertise from classical computer science (computer networking, simulation and modeling, operating system design), from electrical engineering (digital signal processing, communication networks), as well as from automated driving (mechanical engineering, image processing, control theory). Building upon the great success of the first two seminars, with this follow-up seminar, we aimed to again bring together experts from all these fields from both academia and industry.

The seminar focused intensively on discussions in several working groups. To kick-off these discussions, we invited two keynote talks "Cooperative Driving A Control of a Networking Problem?" by Renato Lo Cigno and "Cooperative driving – maneuvers, perception, and IVC" by Lars Wolf. These keynotes were complemented by four additional talks: Human-in-the-Loop: Towards Deeply Integrated Hybridized Systems (Falko Dressler), Machine Learning for Cooperative Driving (Geert Heijenk), Measuring Privacy in Vehicular Networks (Isabel Wagner), and Predictable V2X Networking for Application-Networking Co-Design (Hongwei Zhang). We finally organized the following working groups on some of the most challenging issues related to inter-vehicular communication and cooperative driving:

  • Ultra-Reliable Low-Latency and Heterogeneous V2X Networking,
  • Human-in-the-Loop,
  • Safety-critical Vehicular Network Applications,
  • Security and Privacy,
  • Network and Cloud based Control, and
  • Sensing and Data Management.

For most of these working groups, we provide in-depth feedback from the experts in this report.


  1. Falko Dressler, Hannes Hartenstein, Onur Altintas, and Ozan K. Tonguz. Inter-Vehicle Communication – Quo Vadis. IEEE Communications Magazine, 52(6):170–177, June 2014.
  2. Falko Dressler, Frank Kargl, Jörg Ott, Ozan K. Tonguz, and Lars Wischhof. Research Challenges in Inter-Vehicular Communication – Lessons of the 2010 Dagstuhl Seminar. IEEE Communications Magazine, 49(5):158–164, May 2011.
Summary text license
  Creative Commons BY 3.0 Unported license
  Onur Altintas, Suman Banerjee, Falko Dressler, Geert Heijenk, and Katrin Sjöberg

Dagstuhl-Seminar Series


  • Mobile Computing
  • Networks


  • Vehicular networking
  • Automated driving
  • Cooperative driving
  • Road traffic safety


In der Reihe Dagstuhl Reports werden alle Dagstuhl-Seminare und Dagstuhl-Perspektiven-Workshops dokumentiert. Die Organisatoren stellen zusammen mit dem Collector des Seminars einen Bericht zusammen, der die Beiträge der Autoren zusammenfasst und um eine Zusammenfassung ergänzt.


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